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Monday, February 7, 2011

Nikah bawah umur: Boleh terima atau tidak?

Nikah bawah umur: Boleh terima atau tidak?
Feb 7, 11 3:39pm

Siti Nur Zubaidah Hussin baru berusia 11 tahun ketika dia dipaksa berkahwin oleh bapanya dengan lelaki berusia 41 tahun di Kelantan pada Februari 2010.

Bapanya Hussin Mat Salleh ialah pengikut kumpulan tabligh yang diyakinkan oleh ketuanya Shamsuddin Che Derahman juga digelar "Sudin Ajaib" bahawa perbuatan itu mengikut Sunnah Nabi Muhammad SAW.

Akibat perkahwinan tanpa rela, kanak-kanak pintar darjah lima itu mengalami tekanan perasaan yang hebat.

Dia ditemui dalam keadaan separuh sedar di Masjid Al-Ikhwan, Taman Samudera Batu Caves, beberapa hari selepas suaminya menghilangkan diri bersamanya.

Kes Siti Nur Zubaidah bukanlah yang pertama dan terakhir fenomena pernikahan bawah umur di negara ini kerana masih ada lagi remaja yang berkahwin dengan kerelaan hati malah ada juga yang terpaksa berkahwin kerana hamil di luar nikah.

Pusat Kajian Wanita Antarabangsa (ICRW) pada tahun 2005 memberikan definisi pernikahan bawah umur sebagai pernikahan atau penyatuan antara dua orang yang mana salah seorang ataupun kedua-duanya berusia kurang daripada 18 tahun.

Kecil jangan dipandang ringan

Sehingga kini, kadar peratusan pernikahan di bawah umur di Malaysia masih kecil iaitu 0.725 peratus, tetapi angka ini tidak boleh dipandang enteng kerana pernikahan itu boleh memberikan kesan positif iaitu kebahagiaan ataupun negatifnya, perceraian terhadap kanak-kanak itu.

Pada dasarnya, perkahwinan adalah sebahagian daripada fitrah manusia dan berdasarkan fitrah itulah, Allah menciptakan manusia, tetapi sejauh manakah pernikahan bawah umur diterima oleh masyarakat yang semakin maju pada masa kini?.

Justeru, Jabatan Kehakiman Syariah Malaysia (JKSM) dan Persatuan Pegawai Syariah Malaysia (PPSM) menganjurkan Seminar Kebangsaan Undang-Undang Keluarga Islam "Nikah Bawah Umur : Patut atau Tidak?" di Kuala Lumpur baru-baru ini.

Anggota Jawatankuasa Fatwa Negeri Sembilan Zulkifli Mohamad Al-Bakari berkata terdapat nas yang membolehkan perkahwinan dengan kanak-kanak di bawah umur sama ada daripada Al-Quran, al-Sunnah dan ijma'.

Bagaimanapun, beliau berkata penggubalan undang-undang ataupun peruntukan tertentu yang terkandung dalam undang-undang perlu ada bagi mengawal perkara itu dan untuk memastikan pihak yang terlibat terutamanya pihak perempuan mendapat perlindungan dan jaminan.

Matlamat perkahwinan

"Syeikh Abdullah al-Manie, seorang daripada anggota Majlis Ulama' Kanan Saudi juga berpandangan bahawa perkahwinan antara Rasulullah SAW dengan Sayidatina Aisyah tidak sepatutnya dijadikan alasan untuk mewajarkan perkahwinan gadis bawah umur.
"Pandangan beliau ini timbul sebagai reaksi kepada perkahwinan seorang gadis berumur 12 tahun dengan seorang lelaki berumur 80 tahun di Buraidah, Arab Saudi," katanya ketika membentangkan kertas kerja bertajuk 'Pernikahan Di Bawah Umur Dari Perspektif Syarak'.

Zulkifli berkata walaupun hukum berkahwin dengan gadis kecil adalah harus, tetapi dengan memahami maksud dan matlamat perkahwinan, jelas menunjukkan sewajarnya kanak-kanak yang dikahwini mestilah dalam usia yang mampu menanggung hubungan kelamin.

"Ini kerana bersama pasangan merupakan matlamat perkahwinan, justeru melihat kepada adat, sewajarnya tidak dibenarkan perkahwinan di bawah umur kecuali melihat kes yang tertentu sahaja," katanya.

Seksyen 8, Akta Undang-Undang Keluarga Islam, Wilayah-Wilayah Persekutuan 1984 dan enakmen-enakmen seumpamanya di peringkat negeri memperuntuk umur minimum untuk berkahwin.

Akta ini menyatakan bahawa tiada perkahwinan boleh diakadnikahkan atau didaftarkan jika lelaki itu berumur kurang daripada 18 tahun atau perempuan itu berumur kurang daripada 16 tahun kecuali jika Hakim Syariah memberi kebenarannya secara bertulis dalam hal keadaan tertentu.

Bukan budaya Malaysia

Timbalan Ketua Pengarah Institut Kefahaman Islam Malaysia (Ikim) Prof Datuk Zaleha Kamaruddin berkata negara lain juga mempunyai perkahwinan di bawah umur malah dalam jumlah yang tinggi, justeru sering kali persoalan timbul terhadap Malaysia yang rata-rata masyarakatnya mengecam perkahwinan bawah umur.

"Kenapa Malaysia? Jawapan yang ditemui kerana Malaysia adalah model negara Islam, maka ia tidak sepatutnya menggalakkan perkahwinan di bawah umur.

"Kerana Malaysia negara maju, perkahwinan di bawah umur dilihat sebagai satu amalan yang ketinggalan zaman," katanya ketika membentangkan kertas kerja bertajuk 'Pernikahan Di Bawah Umur Dari Perspektif Undang-Undang'.

Zaleha berkata berkahwin di bawah umur bukanlah budaya di Malaysia pada masa kini dan ibu bapa sepatutnya menggalakkan anak-anak mereka untuk belajar pada usia itu dan bukannya untuk berkahwin.

"Dengan perkembangan dunia kini dan dengan semangat membudayakan ilmu, kita tidak sepatutnya menggalakkan remaja kita berkahwin di bawah umur melainkan dalam hal-hal yang tidak dapat dielakkan," katanya.

Beliau berkata mungkin Malaysia harus belajar dari pengalaman India di mana undang-undang untuk menyekat perkahwinan di bawah umur adalah seperti "harimau yang tidak bergigi".

"Peratusan perkahwinan di bawah umur menjadi sedikit rendah di India dan Pakistan bukan kerana kewujudan undang-undang itu, tetapi ia kerana usaha menggalakkan gadis-gadisnya menuntut ilmu sehingga tertubuhnya universiti khas untuk wanita," katanya.

Implikasi kesihatan

Pernikahan bawah umur juga didapati mempunyai implikasi terhadap kesihatan remaja khususnya yang berkaitan dengan aspek reproduktif dan seksual, selain emosi serta mental mereka.

Pakar Perunding Obstetriks dan Ginekologi Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (HUKM) Prof Madya Dr Harlina Halizah Siraj berkata kebanyakan remaja perempuan yang berkahwin akan hamil dalam usia yang muda dan berhadapan dengan banyak komplikasi dan masalah kesihatan semasa hamil (antenatal), ketika melahirkan (intrapartum) dan juga selepas kelahiran (post-partum).

"Kadar kematian ibu dan bayi juga meningkat dalam kalangan remaja belia yang hamil, bukan sahaja kerana komplikasi semasa proses kehamilan dan kelahiran, malahan juga disebabkan faktor persekitaran yang menyukarkan remaja terbabit mendapatkan kemudahan dan jagaan kesihatan yang optimum," katanya ketika membentangkan kertas kerja bertajuk 'Pernikahan Di Bawah Umur Dari Perspektif Perubatan'.

Dr Harlina Halizah berkata kelompok ini tidak mendapat nasihat yang tepat mengenai kontrasepsi dan perancangan keluarga di samping juga kesukaran membeli sendiri ubatan yang diperlukan untuk tujuan kontrasepsi.

"Selain itu, pemakanan yang kurang memuaskan juga boleh menyebabkan kekurangan zat, kepucatan dan malnutrisi kepada remaja yang terbabit, perkahwinan bawah umur juga dikaitkan dengan kadar keganasan rumah tangga yang tinggi yang menyebabkan kesihatan emosi dan mental remaja terganggu," katanya.

Beliau berkata remaja yang bernikah di usia muda terpaksa berhadapan dengan realiti hidup berkeluarga yang memerlukan kemahiran pembuatan keputusan dan penyelesaian masalah yang berkesan, pengurusan kewangan dan emosi, kematangan dan keupayaan berkomunikasi yang baik.

"Kesukaran dan kepayahan hidup boleh mengakibatkan kesan mendalam terhadap kesihatan mental, emosi, sosial dan spiritual. Perkahwinan juga tidak dapat bertahan lama," katanya.

- Bernama

http://malaysiakini.com/news/155400

PAS: Kenapa perlu serah Kelantan ke mulut naga

Feb 7, 11 12:24pm

PAS menyifatkan kempen Gelombang Merah yang digerakkan Umno Kelantan untuk menarik sokongan 400,000 orang muda hanyalah angan-angan Mat Jenin kerana golongan itu adalah "generasi yang sedar dan bermaklumat."

idris ahmad information chief pas muktamar in kota bharu"Orang muda Kelantan tidak boleh terima slogan Umno hendak membela Kelantan, sedangkan Umno perlu membela rakyat negeri lain yang berada di bawah pemerintahan Umno yang tertinggal jauh dari segi kuasa membeli dan memiliki hartanah," kata ketua penerangannya Idris Ahmad (kiri).

Kelmarin Pengerusi Badan Perhubungan Umno Kelantan Datuk Seri Mustapa Mohamed berkata kempen bertemakan "Transformasi 1Kelantan Gelombang Rakyat" akan dilaksanakan Pemuda Umno negeri melalui penganjuran ceramah, kursus, seminar dan gerak kerja.

Kempen itu antara lain berobjektif untuk menawan negeri itu daripada kepimpinan PAS yang telah memerintah Kelantan selama 21 tahun, pada pilihan raya umum akan datang.

Berikut kenyataan penuh Idris:

PAS berpandangan harapan Datuk Seri Mustafa Mohamed yang hendak memikat 400,000 orang muda hanya angan-angan mat jenin sahaja. Orang muda Kelantan adalah generasi yang sedar dan bermaklumat. Mereka antipenindasan, diskriminasi dan penyelewengan.

Orang muda Kelantan tidak boleh terima slogan Umno hendak membela Kelantan, sedangkan Umno perlu membela rakyat negeri lain yang berada bawah pemerintahan Umno yang tertinggal jauh dari segi kuasa membeli dan memiliki hartanah.

Seramai 400,000 orang muda Kelantan bukan hidup di dalam gua yang tidak tahu perkembangan dunia. Orang muda Kelantan yang terkenal sebagai golongan terpelajar dan memenuhi kerusi di pusat pengajian tinggi di dalam atau luar negeri.

Mereka menguasai ketua jabatan di Putrajaya. Ini petanda rakyat Kelantan, cerdik dan berjaya dalam pelajaran dan kerjaya.

Mereka tidak dapat menerima pengkhianatan kerajaan pusat yang tidak iktiraf kerajaan rakyat di Kelantan. Tindakan kerajaan pusat yang menyekat 118 projek sejak Rancangan Malaysia Keenam 1991, merampas hak royalti minyak satu lagi bukti penyelewengan konsep federalisme.

Kenapa pemimpin Umno Kelantan yang berada di peringkat pusat telah mengkhianat rakyat Kelantan sehingga sanggup menyalurkan minyak ke Songkla Thailand, pada hal lebih ekonomik ia mendarat di Kelantan.

Kesemua sikap ini tidak boleh diterima oleh orang muda Kelantan untuk menerima umno memerintah semula di Kelantan, kenapa mereka hendak menyerahkan diri mereka ke mulut naga untuk merosakkan sistem yang sudah dibina selama 20 tahun.

PAS hendak menasihat Datuk Seri Mustafa Mohamed, lebih baik beliau ambil perhatian negeri-negeri di bawah BN dahulu seperti Sabah dan Sarawak.

Pulihlah ekonomi negara yang menghadapi kadar inflasi yang semakin tinggi, semuanya gara-gara kegagalan kerajaan BN. Kelantan sudah selesa di bawah kepimpinan PAS yang boleh bersaing dengan negeri-negeri di bawah pemerintahan BN.

Umno janganlah jadi tikus membaiki labu.

http://malaysiakini.com/news/155369

Harga naik: Penoreh peroleh RM60,000 sebulan

Feb 7, 11 3:30pm

Kenaikan harga getah di pasaran dunia memberikan tuah kepada pemilik kebun dan penoreh getah di Hulu Besut sehingga ada yang memperoleh pendapatan sehingga RM60,000 sebulan hasil jualan susu getah.

NONEADUN Hulu Besut, Nawi Mohamad berkata, kebanyakan daripada mereka memiliki kebun antara tiga dan enam hektar seorang.

"Seorang penoreh yang mempunyai 3 hektar kebun getah memperoleh RM2,000 dalam masa tiga hari dengan menoreh di kebunnya,” katanya kepada pemberita di Besut hari ini.

Menurutnya, dengan harga pasaran antara RM8 dan RM10 sekilogram pada masa ini, ada antara penoreh yang memperoleh pendapatan RM60,000 dalam masa sebulan.

- Bernama

http://malaysiakini.com/news/155398

US sends warship with 800 troops to Egypt

Agencies

CAIRO, Feb 7: The US is sending warships, including one with 800 troops, and other military assets to Egypt as the revolution in the North African country gains momentum.

Officials in Washington have stated that the move is to be prepared in case of an evacuation of Americans from Egypt.

Pentagon has dismissed widespread assumptions that military intervention in Cairo is being contemplated, asserting that the objective of the deployment is mainly for the evacuation of US citizens in case the situation in Egypt further deteriorates.

Separately, a US aircraft carrier has been asked to abort its mission and stay in the Mediterranean.

The move comes after reports last month that a US Army aviation regiment had been mobilized for deployment to Egypt's Sinai Peninsula to back the Multinational Force and Observers overseeing the Egypt-Israel peace treaty.

Talk doubts

The recent move comes against the backdrop of deepening political stalemate in Egypt, where swarms of demonstrators are still spilling out into central Cairo's Liberation Square, demanding the ouster of embattled President Hosni Mubarak.

Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood has cast doubt on the government's willingness to follow through on promised reforms, following talks with authorities aimed at ending the country's political crisis.

Al Jazeera quoted a member of the opposition group who attended the talks, saying the Muslim Brotherhood does not trust the government to make its proposed changes.

The protests entered their fourteenth day on Monday, a day after tens of thousands of demonstrators observed a "day of the martyrs" in Cairo's Tahrir Square - the focal point of the protests.

The army fired tracer rounds into the air at a cordon they had set up near the Egyptian Museum, an Al Jazeera correspondent in the square reported late on Sunday evening. An army tank also moved towards the 6th of October bridge, where protesters often gather, he said.

Both Muslims and Christians held prayers at the square for the victims of the uprising.

Hundreds of thousands of protesters also gathered in the cities of Alexandria and Mansoura, while thousands more protested in Mahalla. In other parts of the country, banks and shops began to reopen as normal life appeared to be resuming.

http://en.harakahdaily.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2225:us-sends-warship-with-800-troops-to-egypt&catid=37:world&Itemid=59

Egypt approves 15 percent raise for govt employees

AP/Emilio Morenatti

Anti-government protesters sit and lie inside the tracks of an Egyptian Army tank, both to prevent them from moving and to shield themselves from the AP – Anti-government protesters sit and lie inside the tracks of an Egyptian Army tank, both to prevent them …

CAIRO – Egypt's embattled regime announced Monday a 15 percent increase in salaries and pensions in the latest attempt to defuse popular anger amid protests demanding President Hosni Mubarak's ouster.

The cabinet decision follows earlier promises to investigate election fraud and official corruption, which have done little to persuade the tens of thousands occupying downtown's Tahrir Square to end their two-week long protest.

State TV also announced that the family of a detained Google Inc. marketing manager who helped organize the anti-Mubarak demonstrations, "has been notified that he will be released this evening."

Wael Ghonim was one of the most prominent youth organizers of the protests and was seized by security agents on Jan. 28.

Newly appointed Finance Minister Samir Radwan says some 6.5 billion Egyptian pounds ($960 million) will be allocated to cover the increases, which will take effect in April for the 6 million people on public pay rolls.

In the past, public sector employees have been a pillar of support for the regime, but in recent years as prices have soared, their salaries have stagnated in value forcing the government to periodically announce raises to quell dissatisfaction.

Following widespread labor unrest in public sector factories in 2008, Mubarak announced a 30 percent increase in prices that appeared to temporarily blunt public anger.

After the two weeks of instability that has pushed the Arab world's most populous nation to the edge of anarchy, the crisis now appears to be settling into kind of stalemate, with the government offering minor concessions that dodge the protesters' central demand: Mubarak's departure.

The regime appears confident in its ability for the moment to ride out the unprecedented storm of unrest, and maintain its grip on power, at least until September elections.

Egypt's state-run news agency reported that Mubarak ordered the country's parliament and its highest appellate court to reexamine lower-court rulings disqualifying hundreds of ruling party lawmakers for campaign and ballot irregularities, that were ignored by electoral officials — possibly paving the way for new elections.

The ruling National Democratic Party won more than 83 percent of the 518 seats in the 2010 parliamentary elections, which were widely condemned as being rigged.

Judicial officials also promised to start the questioning on Tuesday of three former ministers and a senior ruling party official accused of corruption charges after they were dismissed by Mubarak last week. The cabinet reshuffle was intended to placate protesters by removing some of the most hated officials in the government.

The official Middle East News Agency said former Tourism Minister Zuhair Geranah would be questioned Tuesday along with the former ministers of housing and trade.

MENA also reported that the country's top prosecutor had imposed a travel ban on former Interior Minister Habib al-Adli and froze his bank account.

Protesters on the square Monday said they remained unsatisfied.

"Our main objective is for Mubarak to step down," said student Mohammed Eid. "We don't accept any other concessions."

Cairo, however, seemed Monday morning to be closer to its normal weekday routine than on any day since the Jan. 25 start of the unrest.

Banks were open for limited hours along with many shops. The stock market announced it would reopen next Sunday, though schools were still shut for the mid-year holiday. Traffic was returning to ordinary levels in many places and the start of the nighttime curfew has been pushed an hour later to 8 p.m.

Rami Ghoneim, an unemployed internet activist, said the protesters were in no rush to leave so long as their central demand was not met. The more they stay, he said, the more concessions the regime would offer.

"It is like a wound, the more you press on it the more blood gushes out. We will press until we empty it," he said.

http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20110207/ap_on_re_mi_ea/ml_egypt

Egypt demonstrators entertain to keep morale high


A group of musicians, one playing the Oud, center-right, entertain anti-government protesters with songs against Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak at t AP – A group of musicians, one playing the Oud, center-right, entertain anti-government protesters with songs …

CAIRO – Two rows of men greet demonstrators at the main entrance to Tahrir Square, clapping as people enter, and chanting in the rhythms of a traditional Egyptian wedding procession.

"We are becoming bigger!" they shout. "God is Great!"

Inside Cairo's main square, musicians stroll, a man reads poetry to the crowd and vendors hawk potato chips, tea, hot food — even socks.

Tahrir Square, the scene of deadly battles with firebombs, rocks, horses and camels just last week, has taken on a carnival mood in the past few days as demonstrators try to establish an enduring presence, complete with food and entertainment, in their campaign to demand Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak's ouster.

Fruit vendor Ashraf Gaber, 30, asked people to express themselves in a few words, then wrote their thoughts on pieces of A4 paper he placed on a stack besides him.

Volunteers added it to a collage that spread out before Gaber in a a series of rows held down by rocks.

"We have to make the people happy!" Gaber shouted. "Express what is in your hearts!" he told the crowd.

"Oh Mubarak, you are a shoe!" read one — a particularly stinging insult in Arab culture.

"An Interior Ministry of Thugs!" read another.

Nearby, crowds of young men and women cheered and sung as Fadi Mikhael, 29, strummed an oud — or Arabic lute — to a Western beat.

"We won't be quiet! Raise your voice!" he sang on a stage, his voice amplified by four powerful speakers. The crowd clapped and repeated the chorus.

Poetry writing and recitation is a popular Arab pastime, a manifestation of pride in a language that's rich with subtle shades of meaning and unifies a people of different ethnic backgrounds and two major faiths.

There is a regional satellite television talent show just for poets — with viewers in the millions — and others dedicated to poets mocking each other in verse.

On another impromptu stage, a middle-aged man read poetry into a microphone as another crowd clapped at his ability to cleverly rhyme the stanzas.

"I am a peasant with a sheaf of wheat/I give it to the people generously," he read.

Nearby, demonstrators used stones, once used to repel pro-Mubarak supporters, to spell out slogans on the ground.

The command "Leave!" in Arabic spelled covered a few square feet (meters) of the square. The latest addition: "70 Billion" — the Mubarak family's rumored wealth.

Vendors sold dates, plastic cups of hot tea, socks — three pairs for $2 — sesame-seed snacks, potato chips and juice. Young men and women gathered in circles, debating the day's events. Before Jan. 25., Egyptians would not have dreamt of discussing politics so openly.

"We are learning a culture of respectful disagreement here," said Nashat Cross, 28, a Christian who works as a translator. "The level of cultured discussion is something I really admire."

From time to time, somebody in the crowd would begin chanting anti-Mubarak slogans, and hundreds of others joined in, clapping.

Men sometimes bellydanced on the side to the rhythm of the chants.

Another procession of men stood at the exit, waving the red-white-and-black Egyptian flag, banging drums, blowing on harmonicas and singing, again, like an Egyptian wedding procession.

"You'll come back, wont you?" they chanted. "You'll come back to liberate us!"

http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20110207/ap_on_re_mi_ea/ml_egypt_tahrir_carnival

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