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Monday, November 15, 2010

Nilai kebebasan Aung San Suu Kyi




RIBUAN penyokong srikandi demokrasi Myanmar, Aung San Suu Kyi bersorak gembira apabila tokoh wanita itu tiba di ibu pejabat partinya, Parti Liga Demokrasi Kebangsaan (NLD), sehari selepas pembebasan tanpa syaratnya.

Suu Kyi dibebaskan selepas menjadi tahanan di rumahnya sendiri selama tujuh tahun.

Tiba dengan sebuah kereta dari kediaman tepi tasik di Yangon yang menjadi penjaranya selama ini, beliau menyusup masuk ke dalam pejabat cabuk itu. Di luar, kedengaran tepukan gemuruh diiringi laungan orang ramai: "Kami sayang Suu!"

Di ibu pejabat itu, Suu Kyi bertemu dengan diplomat-diplomat asing yang berpangkalan di Yangon dan dijangka menghadiri sesi pertemuan bersama pihak media dan rakyat. Beliau juga akan menghadiri sesi pengebumian seorang kawan rapat selain melawat Pagoda Shwedagon.

"Ini adalah satu pembebasan tanpa syarat. Beliau tidak dikenakan sebarang sekatan," kata peguamnya, Nyan Win.

Pembebasan Suu Kyi juga menimbulkan spekulasi sama ada srikandi itu mungkin menggunakan kebebasan yang baru dikecapi itu untuk mencabar pemerintah Myanmar sekarang atau mengambil langkah untuk berdamai.

Dalam penampilan sulungnya di khalayak pada petang Sabtu, Suu Kyi meluahkan hasratnya untuk meneruskan perjuangan politiknya. Namun, beliau tidak menyatakan sama ada akan mencabar junta tentera dengan demonstrasi atau sebarang langkah lain yang menyumbang kepada penahanannya sebelum ini.

"Kita ada banyak kerja yang perlu dibuat," katanya.

Wanita berusia 65 tahun yang berkarisma dan suka berterus-terang itu telah menjadi ikon perjuangan demokrasi di Burma sejak lama dahulu. Negara itu jatuh ke tangan pemimpin junta tentera sejak tahun 1962.

Bersatu padu

Di hadapan sekitar 5,000 orang penyokong yang membanjiri kediaman sambil menjerit riang dan juga menangis, Suu Kyi berkata, hanya dengan bersatu padu barulah matlamat dapat dikecapi.


ADAKAH pembebasan Suu Kyi kali ini dapat memberi sinar baru kepada proses demokrasi di Myanmar?


"Sudah lama saya tidak berjumpa dengan anda," katanya sambil tersenyum penuh perasaan dan menggenggam pancang-pancang di bahagian atas pagar itu.

Apabila seorang penyokong menghulurkan sejambak bunga kepada Suu Kyi, beliau menarik keluar sekuntum lalu diletakkan di celah-celah rambutnya.

Meskipun pembebasan Suu Kyi menggembirakan beliau dan para penyokongnya, berita baik itu hanya berlaku beberapa hari selepas satu pilihan raya yang dimenangi parti politik proksi junta tentera.

Tindakan tersebut dikutuk keras oleh negara-negara Barat, malah mereka turut melabelkan pilihan raya itu sebagai satu penipuan yang direka untuk melaksanakan kawalan berunsur kuku besi.

Kebanyakan pemerhati turut mempersoalkan kesesuaian masa bagi pihak pemimpin junta mengalihkan perhatian dunia daripada pilihan raya tersebut.

Adalah mustahil bagi pihak pemerintah junta membenarkan ikon demokrasi itu meneruskan perjuangannya.

Pesuruhjaya Kesatuan Eropah, Jose Manuel Barroso yang mengalu-alukan pembebasan Suu Kyi turut menekankan agar tiada sekatan dikenakan ke atas pejuang demokrasi itu.

"Sekarang adalah tempoh genting untuk memastikan Suu Kyi memiliki kebebasan bergerak dan bersuara malah dibenarkan mengambil bahagian sepenuhnya dalam proses politik di negaranya," kata beliau.


SUU KYI mendapat sokongan daripada masyarakat antarabangsa. Ribuan orang berhimpun di Trafalgar Square, London baru-baru ini meraikan pembebasannya.


Presiden Amerika Syarikat (AS), Barack Obama menggelar Suu Kyi sebagai wira.

"Sama ada Suu Kyi hidup di dalam penjara di rumahnya sendiri atau negaranya, ini tidak mengubah realiti politik pembangkang yang diwakilinya telah 'disenyapkan' secara sistematik. Malah, beliau turut disekat peluangnya untuk terlibat dalam kegiatan politik," kata Obama dalam satu kenyataan.

Di Myanmar, pihak-pihak lain pula menganggap Suu Kyi sebagai satu-satunya individu yang mampu menyatukan negara miskin dan terpencil di Indochina itu.

Manipulasi junta

"Suu Kyi ialah wira negara kami. Pilihan raya kami adalah satu penipuan. Semua orang tahu. Tetapi, masalahnya, mereka ada senapang, jadi apa yang boleh kami buat? Dialah satu-satunya orang yang boleh memberi demokrasi kepada kami," kata Tin Tin Yi, seorang pelajar universiti berusia 20 tahun yang berdiri berdekatan rumah Suu Kyi.

Para pengkritik pula berpendapat pilihan raya Myanmar pada 7 November lalu telah dimanipulasikan agar parti penyokong junta tentera dapat memperoleh kemenangan besar.

Seorang bekas duta Australia di Myanmar, Trevor Wilson berkata, adalah mustahil untuk kerajaan baru itu memenangi kepercayaan antarabangsa kecuali dengan membebaskan Suu Kyi. Lagipun, pilihan raya baru-baru ini juga jelas sekali tidak adil.

Menurutnya, perkembangan seterusnya bakal bergantung kepada jenis sekatan yang dikenakan ke atas Suu Kyi termasuk perkara-perkara yang boleh diperkatakan seandainya beliau dibenarkan bersuara.

"Kita hanya perlu tunggu dan lihat. Ia mungkin seperti satu permainan kucing dan tikus," kata Wilson.

Jurucakap parti NLD, Nyan Win berkata, Suu Kyi telah menyatakan hasratnya untuk membantu dalam siasatan penipuan undi. Parti NLD telah dibubarkan secara rasmi kerana enggan mendaftar untuk pilihan raya tersebut. Keadaan itu telah menimbulkan kemarahan pihak junta tentera.

Drama penahanan

Pilihan raya terakhir Myanmar pada tahun 1990 telah dimenangi oleh NLD, namun junta tentera enggan menyerahkan kuasa, sebaliknya mengambil langkah menumpaskan pembangkang.

Tahun lalu, Suu Kyi telah dijatuhkan hukuman tambahan tahanan di rumah selama 18 bulan berikutan insiden seorang lelaki AS berenang dalam tasik di rumahnya.

Penahanan Suu Kyi bermula pada tahun 2003 selepas perarakan yang diketuai beliau diserang hendap oleh perusuh pro-kerajaan di utara Myanmar.


BERIBU-RIBU penyokong Suu Kyi dan kumpulan media antarabangsa menanti kemunculan beliau selepas lebih tujuh tahun terkurung di kediamannya di Yangon.


Perjuangan Suu Kyi untuk demokrasi dimulakan pada tahun 1988. Demonstrasi besar-besaran pada tahun itu bertujuan untuk menentang pemerintahan tentera yang menguasai Myanmar selama 25 tahun. Beliau diberi kepercayaan untuk memimpin demonstrasi berkenaan kerana statusnya sebagai anak bekas pemimpin Myanmar, Aung San.

Aung San merupakan wira yang mengetuai perjuangan Myanmar mencapai kemerdekaan daripada British selepas Perang Dunia Kedua sebelum mati dibunuh oleh pesaing politiknya pada bulan Julai 1947. Ketika itu Suu Kyi baru berusia dua tahun.

Populariti dan perjuangan Suu Kyi yang merupakan pengasas parti NLD kian bertambah setelah beliau menerima pengiktirafan antarabangsa menerusi Hadiah Nobel Keamanan pada tahun 1991.

Pada tahun 1989, Suu Kyi ditahan atas tuduhan keselamatan kebangsaan dan diletakkan di bawah tahanan rumah. Sejak 21 tahun lalu, Suu Kyi telah menjalani hukuman tahanan rumah lebih daripada 15 tahun. - AFP

http://www.kosmo.com.my/kosmo/content.asp?y=2010&dt=1115&pub=Kosmo&sec=Rencana_Utama&pg=ru_01.htm

Nikmat berhenti merokok


KETAGIHAN merokok ibarat membunuh diri secara perlahan-lahan.


“BERHENTILAH merokok. Simpan duit itu untuk buat kebaikan,” pesan Mohammad Ameen, 30, bekas perokok tegar yang mula merokok sejak belasan tahun lagi itu.

Lelaki yang berasal dari England Utara itu pernah membelanjakan sehingga RM30 sehari untuk menampung kos ketagihannya itu.

Namun, pada bulan Ramadan 2008, beliau memutuskan untuk berhenti sepenuhnya menghisap 25 batang rokok sehari yang selama ini dilakukannya itu.

“Seorang cendekiawan memberitahu saya merokok itu haram kerana apabila seseorang itu merokok dia sebenarnya sedang memusnahkan dirinya sendiri.

“Kita semua tahu bahaya merokok jadi memang benarlah kita merosakkan tubuh kita.

“Tambahan pula, pakar perubatan mengatakan perokok sebenarnya sedang membunuh diri dengan perlahan,” ujarnya.

Bagaimanapun, ketika memutuskan untuk berhenti merokok, Mohammed Ameen sudah pun memasang niat yang besar.

“Ketika saya memutuskan untuk berhenti merokok saya juga berjanji untuk menggunakan wang perbelanjaan untuk rokok itu untuk melakukan penghijrahan spritual yang paling besar dalam hidup saya, iaitu mengerjakan haji,” kata Mohammed Ameen.

Kokain

Akuinya, sukar sekali untuknya berhenti merokok. Namun, Mohammed Ameen nekad bahawa ia bukan sesuatu yang mustahil untuk dilakukan walaupun adakalanya beliau sendiri berasa ragu-ragu usaha itu akan berhasil.

“Ia merupakan satu usaha yang paling sukar saya pernah lakukan dalam hidup saya kerana saya sangat seronok menghisap rokok, setiap batang yang pernah saya hisap.

“Jadi ketika berhenti merokok, ia amat sukar. Tetapi kerana saya sudah nekad dan sanggup mengharunginya, akhirnya saya berjaya juga.

“Selepas dua tahun, rasa mengidam untuk menghisap rokok sudah hilang tetapi keinginan itu masih ada. Keluarga saya juga sangat gembira apabila mereka tahu saya sudah berhenti merokok.

“Tak sangka saya berhabis sehingga RM14,991 untuk merokok dalam setahun!” luahnya.

Biarpun berat untuk ditanggung, Mohammed Ameen berasakan keputusan untuk berhenti merokok merupakan keputusan terbaik yang pernah dilakukan dalam hidupnya.

“Saya tahu pada bulan Ramadan ramai yang cepat-cepat merokok sebaik saja berbuka puasa. Tetapi kalau difikirkan sejenak, selepas menahan diri daripada merokok selama 18 jam kenapa tidak dilanjutkan tempoh itu sehingga 24 jam?

“Daripada menggunakan duit itu untuk melayan ketagihan seperti itu, lebih baik gunakannya untuk kebajikan.

“Ramai yang tidak sedar ada begitu banyak bahan kimia dalam sebatang rokok. Sejumlah 85 peratus daripada kes kanser paru-paru berlaku disebabkan tabiat merokok.


MOHAMMED AMEEN


“Malah, bukan perokok saja yang menderita, orang di sekelilingnya juga menyedut toksin berbahaya ketika berada dekat dengan mereka,” kongsi Mohammed Ameen.

Pada hari ini, Mohammed Ameen sudah berada di bumi Mekah dan bersedia untuk mengerjakan haji.

Malah, Penasihat Kesihatan Berhenti Merokok NHS itu kini menggunakan pengalamannya itu untuk menasihati perokok tegar yang lain agar mempertimbangkan keputusan untuk berhenti merokok.

“Saya bermula sebagai sukarelawan di sini tetapi kemudian saya berasa saya boleh memberi nasihat kepada orang lain.

Memanglah saya sendiri berhenti merokok secara mengejut tanpa menggunakan sebarang bentuk gantian namun saya harap orang lain akan menggunakan apa jua bentuk bantuan yang diperlukan untuk berhenti merokok.

“Pergilah dapatkan nasihat daripada pusat-pusat pemulihan berdekatan tempat tinggal anda. Saya sudah berjumpa ramai perokok yang gagal berhenti merokok kerana mereka tidak mempunyai sokongan yang berterusan,” pesannya. – ASIAN IMAGE

http://www.kosmo.com.my/kosmo/content.asp?y=2010&dt=1114&pub=Kosmo&sec=Kesihatan&pg=ke_01.htm

Jakim sahkan minyak sapi QBB halal

PUTRAJAYA: Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia (Jakim) sudah meluluskan permohonan pengesahan sijil halal bagi minyak sapi berjenama QBB Pure Ghee keluaran QBI Packaging Sdn Bhd, 1 November lalu.

Laman web Halal Malaysia, berkata sijil itu diberikan selepas pemeriksaan secara terperinci dengan menggunakan pendekatan ‘product tracebility’.

Katanya, tiga elemen diguna pakai iaitu ‘supplier traceability’, ‘process traceability dan ‘costumer traceability’.

“Jakim memaklumkan, minyak sapi jenama QBB Pure Ghee keluaran QBI Packaging adalah menepati konsep Halalan Toyiban dengan itu permohonan halal daripada terbabit sudah diluluskan pada 1 November,” katanya.

http://www.hmetro.com.my/myMetro/articles/JakimsahkanminyaksapiQBBhalal/Article/index_html

Lahir bayi luar nikah di bilik air

NIBONG TEBAL: Rahsia gadis berusia 19 tahun berada dalam bilik air agak lama akhirnya terbongkar selepas kakaknya yang pelik meninjau sebelum ternampak kaki bayi di atas lantai bilik air berkenaan.

Dalam kejadian jam 4.20 petang Jumaat lalu di Taman Widuri, gadis berkenaan melahirkan bayi perempuan yang cukup sifat sebelum bayi itu meninggal dunia.


Ketua Polis Daerah Seberang Perai Selatan, Superintendan Shafien Mamat berkata, kakak gadis itu yang berusia 20-an memaklumkan kejadian berkenaan kepada polis sebelum gadis itu bersama bayi berkenaan dikejarkan ke Hospital Sungai Bakap.

“Hasil bedah siasat ke atas bayi terbabit di Hospital Sungai Bakap, doktor mengesahkan bayi itu meninggal dunia dalam kandungan.


Gadis itu dipindahkan ke Hospital Seberang Jaya (HSJ) untuk rawatan lanjut dan kes disiasat mengikut Seksyen 318 Kanun Keseksaan kerana menyembunyikan kelahiran,” katanya.


Menurutnya, kakak gadis itu mendakwa dia dan keluarga tidak mengetahui adiknya hamil kerana keadaan fizikalnya tidak kelihatan seperti wanita mengandung.

“Ketika kejadian, kakak gadis itu melihat adiknya masuk ke bilik air, namun bimbang kerana adiknya lama dalam bilik air.


“Kakaknya memeriksa adiknya serta bayi yang masih bertali pusat sebelum mendapati bayi itu meninggal dunia,” katanya.

Menurutnya, siasatan masih diteruskan dan menunggu gadis berkenaan sembuh sebelum mengambil keterangan lanjut.


Shafien berkata, ketika siasatan awal, suspek yang kurang bercakap mengaku berkawan dengan seorang lelaki yang juga teman lelakinya berusia awal 20-an.

http://www.hmetro.com.my/myMetro/articles/Lahirbayiluarnikahdibilikair/Article/index_html

What is Sodium Benzoate?

Sodium benzoate is a type of salt that may occur naturally in some foods but is more likely to be chemically produced and added as a preservative to foods. When used as a preservative, sodium benzoate is typically added to foods in small amounts only. If too much is added, food may take on a very bitter taste.

The reason you will note sodium benzoate listed in the ingredients of so many foods is because it works very well at killing bacteria, yeast and fungi. You will most commonly see it used as a preservative in foods with a high acid content, since sodium benzoate will only work when the pH balance of foods is less than 3.6. It is therefore effective in most sodas, vinegar, fruit juice, and in mixed ingredients like salad dressing. It is additionally used to stop the fermentation process in wines.

Sodium benzoate naturally occurs in several fruits like apples, plums and cranberries. A few sweet spices contain small amounts of sodium benzoate, including cloves and cinnamon. The presence of sodium benzoate in these foods does not necessarily act to preserve them.

You may be able to taste sodium benzoate in foods to which it is added — approximately 75% of people can taste it. People who can taste sodium benzoate can describe it in different ways. Some call it bitter or salty while others think the taste is more on the sweet side. Since many of us drink soft drinks on a regular basis, we are fairly used to tasting this preservative and generally think nothing of it.

There have been some health concerns about the combination of sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid or vitamin C. When the two are mixed, they can form the chemical benzene, which is carcinogenic. However, sodium benzoate on its own is not considered a carcinogen, and you would have to consume a huge amount of it in order to have toxic levels in your body. In mice studies where the animals were fed sodium benzoate, no adverse effects were reported, and the mice’s life expectancies were not shortened, nor was their health affected in any way.

The same cannot be said of benzene, which researchers now show has the ability to affect mitochondria in cells and cause cell death. Scientists have called for the US Food and Drug Administration to retest the potential dangers of sodium benzoate and citric acid in soft drinks, because the tests proving its safety are quite old. In the interim, it may just be a good idea to at least cut down on the amount of soft drinks you consume, and especially to limit soft drink consumption for kids.


http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-sodium-benzoate.htm

Sodium benzoate

From Wikipedia(View original Wikipedia Article) Last modified on 6 November 2010, at 19:50

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Sodium benzoate
Identifiers
CAS number 532-32-1 YesY
PubChem 517055
ChemSpider 10305
UNII OJ245FE5EU YesY
RTECS number DH6650000
SMILES
InChI
InChI key
Properties
Molecular formula NaC6H5CO2
Molar mass 144.11 g/mol
Density 1.497 g/cm3
Melting point

300 °C

Solubility in water soluble
Solubility soluble in ethanol
Acidity (pKa) 8.0
Hazards
Flash point 100 °C
Autoignition
temperature
500 °C
LD50 4100 mg/kg (oral, rat)
YesY (what is this?) (verify)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Sodium benzoate (E211) has the chemical formula NaC6H5CO2. It is the sodium salt of benzoic acid and exists in this form when dissolved in water. It can be produced by reacting sodium hydroxide with benzoic acid.

Table of Contents
1 Uses
2 Mechanism of food preservation
3 Safety and health
3.1 Hyperactivity
4 Compendial status
5 See also
6 References
7 External links

Uses

Sodium benzoate is a preservative. It is bacteriostatic and fungistatic under acidic conditions. It is used most prevalently in acidic foods such as salad dressings (vinegar), carbonated drinks (carbonic acid), jams and fruit juices (citric acid), pickles (vinegar), and condiments. It is also found in alcohol-based mouthwash and silver polish.[citation needed] It can also be found in cough syrups like Robitussin.[1] Sodium benzoate is declared on a product label as 'sodium benzoate' or E211.

It is also used in fireworks as a fuel in whistle mix, a powder that emits a whistling noise when compressed into a tube and ignited. The fuel is also one of the fastest burning rocket fuels and provides a lot of thrust and smoke. It does have its downsides, there is a high danger of explosion when the motor is pressed because of the fuel's sensitivity to impact. That is why only professional pyrotechnicians should make it.

Sodium benzoate is produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium hydroxide.[2] Benzoic acid is detectable at low levels in cranberries, prunes, greengage plums, cinnamon, ripe cloves, and apples. Though benzoic acid is a more effective preservative, sodium benzoate is more commonly used as a food additive because benzoic acid does not dissolve well in water.[2] Concentration as a preservative is limited by the FDA in the U.S. to 0.1% by weight. The International Programme on Chemical Safety found no adverse effects in humans at doses of 647–825 mg/kg of body weight per day.[3][4]

Cats have a significantly lower tolerance against benzoic acid and its salts than rats and mice.[5] Sodium benzoate is, however, allowed as an animal food additive at up to 0.1%, according to AFCO's official publication.[6]

Mechanism of food preservation

The mechanism starts with the absorption of benzoic acid into the cell. If the intracellular pH changes to 5 or lower, the anaerobic fermentation of glucose through phosphofructokinase is decreased by 95%.[7]

Safety and health

In combination with ascorbic acid (vitamin C, E300), sodium benzoate and potassium benzoate form benzene, a known carcinogen; however the levels are below those considered dangerous for consumption [8]. Heat, light and shelf life can affect the rate at which benzene is formed.

Professor Peter W Piper of the University of Sheffield claims that sodium benzoate by itself can damage and inactivate vital parts of DNA in a cell's mitochondria. Mitochondria consume oxygen to generate ATP, the body's energy currency. If they are damaged due to disease, the cell malfunctions and may enter apoptosis. There are many illnesses now tied to DNA damage, including Parkinson's and other neurodegenerative diseases, but above all, the aging process in general.[9][10][11][12][13]

Hyperactivity

Research published in 2007 for the UK's Food Standards Agency (FSA) suggests that certain artificial colours, when paired with sodium benzoate (E211) may be linked to hyperactive behaviour. The results were inconsistent regarding sodium benzoate, so the FSA recommended further study.[14][15][16]

Professor Jim Stevenson from Southampton University, and author of the report, said: "This has been a major study investigating an important area of research. The results suggest that consumption of certain mixtures of artificial food colours and sodium benzoate preservative are associated with increases in hyperactive behaviour in children. However, parents should not think that simply taking these additives out of food will prevent hyperactive disorders. We know that many other influences are at work but this at least is one a child can avoid."[16]

Two mixtures of additives were tested in the research:[16]

Mix A:

  • Sunset yellow (E110)
  • Tartrazine (E102)
  • Carmoisine (E122)
  • Ponceau 4R (E124)
  • Sodium benzoate (E211)

Mix B:

  • Sunset yellow (E110)
  • Quinoline yellow (E104)
  • Carmoisine (E122)
  • Allura red (E129)
  • Sodium benzoate (E211)

Sodium benzoate was included in both mixes, but the effects observed were not consistent. The Food Standards Agency therefore considers that, if real, the observed increases in hyperactive behaviour were more likely to be linked to one or more of the specific colours tested.

On 10 April 2008, the Foods Standard Agency called for a voluntary removal of the colours (but not sodium benzoate) by 2009.[17] In addition, it recommended that there should be action to phase them out in food and drink in the European Union (EU) over a specified period.[18]

In response to consumer insistence on a more natural product and E211's links to DNA damage and ADHD, the Coca Cola Company is in the process of phasing Sodium Benzoate out of Diet Coke. The company has stated that it plans to remove E211 from its other products — including Sprite, Fanta, and Oasis — as soon as a satisfactory alternative is discovered.[19]

Compendial status

See also

References

  1. Sodium benzoate in Robitussin cough
  2. 2.0 2.1 INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY
  3. Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 26: Benzoic acid and sodium benzoate
  4. Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel Bindu Nair (2001). "Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Benzyl Alcohol, Benzoic Acid, and Sodium Benzoate". Int J Tox 20 (Suppl 3): 23–50. doi:10.1080/10915810152630729.
  5. Bedford PG, Clarke EG (January 1972). "Experimental benzoic acid poisoning in the cat". Vet. Rec. 90 (3): 53–8. PMID 4672555.
  6. AFCO (2004). Official Publication. pp. 262.
  7. Krebs HA, Wiggins D, Stubbs M, Sols A, Bedoya F (September 1983). "Studies on the mechanism of the antifungal action of benzoate". Biochem. J. 214 (3): 657–63. PMID 6226283.
  8. FDA, 2006. "Data on Benzene in Soft Drinks and Other Beverages, " United States Food and Drug Administration.
  9. Martin Hickman Caution: Some soft drinks may seriously harm your health The Independent on Sunday 27 May 2007
  10. Martin Hickman E211 Revealed: Evidence highlights new fear over drinks additive The Independent on Sunday 27 May 2007
  11. Leading article: Children deserve our doubts The Independent on Sunday 27 May 2007
  12. Chris Mercer Fresh health fears hit benzoate in soft drinks BeverageDaily 29 May 2007
  13. Piper PW (December 1999). "Yeast superoxide dismutase mutants reveal a pro-oxidant action of weak organic acid food preservatives". Free Radic. Biol. Med. 27 (11-12): 1219–27. doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(99)00147-1. PMID 10641714. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0891-5849(99)00147-1.
  14. Food Standards Agency issues revised advice on certain artificial colours 6 September 2007
  15. Food Colorings and Hyperactivity "Myomancy" 7 September 2007
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 Agency revises advice on certain artificial colours Food Standards Agency 11 September 2007
  17. BBC Europe-wide food colour ban call 10 April 2008
  18. FSA Board discusses colours advice 10 April 2008
  19. The Daily Mail DNA Damage Fear 24 May 2008
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 Sigma Aldrich. "Sodium benzoate". http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/Lookup.do?N5=CAS%20No.&N3=mode+matchpartialmax&N4=532-32-1&D7=0&D10=532-32-1&N25=0&N1=S_ID&ST=RS&F=PR. Retrieved 17 July 2009.
  21. Therapeutic Goods Administration. "Chemical Substances" (PDF). http://www.tga.gov.au/docs/pdf/aan/aanchem.pdf. Retrieved 17 July 2009.
  22. British Pharmacopoeia Commission Secretariat. "Index (BP)". http://www.pharmacopoeia.co.uk/pdf/2009_index.pdf. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
  23. "Japanese Pharmacopoeia 15th Edition". http://jpdb.nihs.go.jp/jp15e/. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
  24. The United States Pharmacopeial Convention. "Revisions to USP 29–NF 24". http://www.usp.org/USPNF/revisions/usp29nf24firstSupplement04.html. Retrieved 17 July 2009.

External links

http://www.ask.com/wiki/Sodium_benzoate

BENZOIC ACID

MSDS Number: B1356 * * * * * Effective Date: 05/19/08 * * * * * Supercedes: 08/24/05


BENZOIC ACID


1. Product Identification

Synonyms: Benzenecarboxylic acid; benzeneformic acid; phenyl carboxylic acid, phenyl formic acid, dracylic acid.
CAS No.: 65-85-0
Molecular Weight: 122.12
Chemical Formula: C6H5COOH
Product Codes:
J.T. Baker: 0076, 0080, 0081
Mallinckrodt: 0108

2. Composition/Information on Ingredients


  Ingredient                                CAS No         Percent        Hazardous                                     ---------------------------------------   ------------   ------------   ---------        Benzoic Acid                              65-85-0            100%          Yes                                                                    

3. Hazards Identification

Emergency Overview
--------------------------
WARNING! CAUSES EYE IRRITATION. MAY CAUSE IRRITATION TO SKIN AND RESPIRATORY TRACT. MAY FORM COMBUSTIBLE DUST CONCENTRATIONS IN AIR.

SAF-T-DATA(tm) Ratings (Provided here for your convenience)
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Health Rating: 1 - Slight
Flammability Rating: 2 - Moderate
Reactivity Rating: 1 - Slight
Contact Rating: 3 - Severe
Lab Protective Equip: GOGGLES & SHIELD; LAB COAT & APRON; VENT HOOD; PROPER GLOVES
Storage Color Code: Green (General Storage)
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Potential Health Effects
----------------------------------

Inhalation:
May cause irritation to the respiratory tract, (nose and throat); symptoms may include coughing and sore throat.
Ingestion:
Large oral doses may cause abdominal pain, sore throat, nausea, and vomiting.
Skin Contact:
If allowed to remain on skin, may cause irritation with redness and pain.
Eye Contact:
Causes irritation with redness and pain.
Chronic Exposure:
No information found.
Aggravation of Pre-existing Conditions:
No information found.

4. First Aid Measures

Inhalation:
Remove to fresh air. Get medical attention for any breathing difficulty.
Ingestion:
Give several glasses of water to drink to dilute. If large amounts were swallowed, get medical advice.
Skin Contact:
Wash exposed area with soap and water. Get medical advice if irritation develops.
Eye Contact:
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, lifting lower and upper eyelids occasionally. Get medical attention immediately.

5. Fire Fighting Measures

Fire:
Flash point: 121C (250F) CC
Autoignition temperature: 570C (1058F)
Explosion:
Fine dust dispersed in air in sufficient concentrations, and in the presence of an ignition source is a potential dust explosion hazard. Minimum explosible concentration 0.011 g/l. Vapor may explode if ignited in an enclosed area. Vapor from molten benzoic acid may form explosive mixture with air.
Fire Extinguishing Media:
Water spray, dry chemical, alcohol foam, or carbon dioxide.
Special Information:
In the event of a fire, wear full protective clothing and NIOSH-approved self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.

6. Accidental Release Measures

Remove all sources of ignition. Ventilate area of leak or spill. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment as specified in Section 8. Spills: Clean up spills in a manner that does not disperse dust into the air. Use non-sparking tools and equipment. Reduce airborne dust and prevent scattering by moistening with water. Pick up spill for recovery or disposal and place in a closed container. US Regulations (CERCLA) require reporting spills and releases to soil, water and air in excess of reportable quantities. The toll free number for the US Coast Guard National Response Center is (800) 424-8802.



7. Handling and Storage

Keep in a well closed container stored under cold to warm conditions, 2 to 40 C, (36 to 104F). Protect against physical damage. Isolate from any source of heat or ignition. Isolate from oxidizing materials. Isolate from flammable materials.

8. Exposure Controls/Personal Protection

Airborne Exposure Limits:
None established.
Ventilation System:
A system of local and/or general exhaust is recommended to keep employee exposures as low as possible. Local exhaust ventilation is generally preferred because it can control the emissions of the contaminant at its source, preventing dispersion of it into the general work area. Please refer to the ACGIH document, Industrial Ventilation, A Manual of Recommended Practices, most recent edition, for details.
Personal Respirators (NIOSH Approved):
For conditions of use where exposure to dust or mist is apparent and engineering controls are not feasible, a particulate respirator (NIOSH type N95 or better filters) may be worn. If oil particles (e.g. lubricants, cutting fluids, glycerine, etc.) are present, use a NIOSH type R or P filter. For emergencies or instances where the exposure levels are not known, use a full-face positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator. WARNING: Air-purifying respirators do not protect workers in oxygen-deficient atmospheres.
Skin Protection:
Wear protective gloves and clean body-covering clothing.
Eye Protection:
Use chemical safety goggles and/or full face shield where dusting or splashing of solutions is possible. Maintain eye wash fountain and quick-drench facilities in work area.

9. Physical and Chemical Properties

Appearance:
White, needle-like crystals.
Odor:
Faint pleasant odor.
Solubility:
0.29 g / 100 ml. water; sinks in water.
Density:
1.32
pH:
2.8 (saturated solution @ 25 0C)
% Volatiles by volume @ 21C (70F):
0
Boiling Point:
249C (480F)
Melting Point:
122C (252F)
Vapor Density (Air=1):
4.2
Vapor Pressure (mm Hg):
1 @ 96C (205F)
Evaporation Rate (BuAc=1):
No information found.

10. Stability and Reactivity

Stability:
Stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage.
Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Emits toxic vapors and gas including phenol, benzene, and carbon monoxide when heated to decomposition.
Hazardous Polymerization:
Will not occur.
Incompatibilities:
Oxidizing agents, bases, and metals. Water solutions can react with metals to produce hydrogen gas.
Conditions to Avoid:
Heat, flame, ignition sources, dusting and incompatibles.

11. Toxicological Information


Oral rat LD50: 1700 mg/kg; LC50 rat > 26,000mg/L/Hr.; irritation skin rabbit: 500 mg/24H mild; eye rabbit: 100 mg severe; investigated as a mutagen.
  --------\Cancer Lists\------------------------------------------------------                                          ---NTP Carcinogen---   Ingredient                             Known    Anticipated    IARC Category   ------------------------------------   -----    -----------    -------------   Benzoic Acid (65-85-0)                  No          No            None 

12. Ecological Information

Environmental Fate:
When released into the soil, this material may leach into groundwater. When released into the soil, this material is expected to readily biodegrade. When released into the soil, this material is expected to have a half-life between 1 and 10 days. When released into water, this material is expected to readily biodegrade. When released into the water, this material is expected to have a half-life between 1 and 10 days. When released into water, this material is not expected to evaporate significantly. This material has a log octanol-water partition coefficient of less than 3.0. This material may bioaccumulate to some extent. When released into the air, this material is expected to be moderately removed from the atmosphere by wet deposition. When released to the air, this material is subject to removal from the atmosphere by gravitational settling.
Environmental Toxicity:
No information found.

13. Disposal Considerations

Whatever cannot be saved for recovery or recycling should be managed in an appropriate and approved waste disposal facility. Processing, use or contamination of this product may change the waste management options. State and local disposal regulations may differ from federal disposal regulations. Dispose of container and unused contents in accordance with federal, state and local requirements.

14. Transport Information

Not regulated.

15. Regulatory Information

  --------\Chemical Inventory Status - Part 1\---------------------------------   Ingredient                                       TSCA  EC   Japan  Australia   -----------------------------------------------  ----  ---  -----  ---------   Benzoic Acid (65-85-0)                            Yes  Yes   Yes      Yes                                           --------\Chemical Inventory Status - Part 2\---------------------------------                                                           --Canada--   Ingredient                                       Korea  DSL   NDSL  Phil.   -----------------------------------------------  -----  ---   ----  -----   Benzoic Acid (65-85-0)                            Yes   Yes   No     No         --------\Federal, State & International Regulations - Part 1\----------------                                              -SARA 302-    ------SARA 313------   Ingredient                                 RQ    TPQ     List  Chemical Catg.   -----------------------------------------  ---   -----   ----  --------------   Benzoic Acid (65-85-0)                     No    No      No         No     --------\Federal, State & International Regulations - Part 2\----------------                                                         -RCRA-    -TSCA-   Ingredient                                 CERCLA     261.33     8(d)    -----------------------------------------  ------     ------    ------   Benzoic Acid (65-85-0)                     5000       No         No      Chemical Weapons Convention:  No     TSCA 12(b):  No     CDTA:  No SARA 311/312:  Acute: Yes      Chronic: No   Fire: Yes Pressure: No Reactivity: No          (Pure / Solid)  


Australian Hazchem Code: None allocated.
Poison Schedule: None allocated.
WHMIS:
This MSDS has been prepared according to the hazard criteria of the Controlled Products Regulations (CPR) and the MSDS contains all of the information required by the CPR.

16. Other Information

NFPA Ratings: Health: 2 Flammability: 1 Reactivity: 0
Label Hazard Warning:
WARNING! CAUSES EYE IRRITATION. MAY CAUSE IRRITATION TO SKIN AND RESPIRATORY TRACT. MAY FORM COMBUSTIBLE DUST CONCENTRATIONS IN AIR.
Label Precautions:
Avoid contact with eyes, skin and clothing.
Avoid breathing dust.
Wash thoroughly after handling.
Keep container closed.
Avoid dust cloud in presence of an ignition source.
Maintain adequate ventilation.
Label First Aid:
In case of eye contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes.
Product Use:
Laboratory Reagent.
Revision Information:
No Changes.
Disclaimer:
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Mallinckrodt Baker, Inc. provides the information contained herein in good faith but makes no representation as to its comprehensiveness or accuracy. This document is intended only as a guide to the appropriate precautionary handling of the material by a properly trained person using this product. Individuals receiving the information must exercise their independent judgment in determining its appropriateness for a particular purpose. MALLINCKRODT BAKER, INC. MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION ANY WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE WITH RESPECT TO THE INFORMATION SET FORTH HEREIN OR THE PRODUCT TO WHICH THE INFORMATION REFERS. ACCORDINGLY, MALLINCKRODT BAKER, INC. WILL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR DAMAGES RESULTING FROM USE OF OR RELIANCE UPON THIS INFORMATION.
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Prepared by: Environmental Health & Safety
Phone Number: (314) 654-1600 (U.S.A.)
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